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Drug Guide / Reference

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Rossoe Reply with quote
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Joined: 05 Feb 2006
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 09, 2006 12:05 pm    Post subject: Drug Guide / Reference
Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid
is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. It has also an anticoagulant ("blood-thinning") effect and is used in long-term low-doses to prevent heart attacks.

Aspirin was the first discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, though they all have similar effects and a similar action mechanism.

Celebrex (Celecoxib)
contain the active ingredient celecoxib, which is a type of medicine known as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Celebrex is prescribed for acute pain, menstrual cramps, and the pain and inflammation of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is the first of a new class of (NSAIDs) called "COX-2 inhibitors." Like older NSAIDs such as Motrin and Naprosyn, Celebrex is believed to fight pain and inflammation by inhibiting the effect of a natural enzyme called COX-2. Unlike the older medications, however, it does not interfere with a similar substance, called COX-1, which exerts a protective effect on the lining of the stomach. Celebrex is therefore less likely to cause the bleeding and ulcers that sometimes accompany sustained use of the older NSAIDs. It is marketed by Pfizer under the brand name Celebrex.

Celecoxib is a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor and primarily inhibits this isoform of cyclooxygenase, whereas traditional NSAIDs inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2. Celecoxib is approximately 10-20 times more selective for COX-2 inhibition over COX-1. In theory, this specificity allows celecoxib and other COX-2 inhibitors to reduce inflammation (and pain) while minimizing gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (e.g. stomach ulcers) that are common with non-selective NSAIDs.

Aside from the incidence of gastric ulceration, celecoxib exhibits a similar adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile to other NSAIDs.

More common side effects may include: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, indigestion, nausea, respiratory infection, sinus inflammation.

Celecoxib contains a sulfonamide moiety and may cause allergic reactions in those allergic to other sulfonamide-containing drugs.

is a non-proprietary name used to denote a combination of two active ingredients, codeine phosphate and paracetamol. Co-codamol tablets are used for the relief of mild/moderate (or in the case of 30/500mg - severe) pain.

Paracetamol is a medicine used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It is also useful for reducing fever. It is not fully understood how paracetamol produces these effects. Codeine belongs to group of medicines called opioids. Opioids mimic the effects of naturally occurring pain reducing chemicals (endorphins) that are found in the brain and spinal cord. They act on the opioid receptors in the brain and block the transmission of pain signals. This combination is used to reduce fever and to relieve severe pain caused by a variety of conditions.

Codeine or methylmorphine
is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. While codeine can be extracted from opium, most codeine is synthesized from morphine through the process of O-methylation. It is, however, less potent than morphine since only about 10% of the codeine is converted.

Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with the use of codeine include itching, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dry mouth, miosis, orthostatic hypotension, urinary retention and constipation.

Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone
(marketed as Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan, Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Tussionex, Vicoprofen) is an opioid derived from either of the naturally occurring opiates codeine or thebaine.

As a narcotic, hydrocodone relieves pain by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. It may be taken with or without food. When taken with alcohol, it can intensify drowsiness.

Common side effects include dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, drowsiness, euphoria, vomiting, and constipation. Some less common side effects are allergic reaction, blood disorders, changes in mood, mental fogginess, anxiety, lethargy, difficulty urinating, spasm of the ureter, irregular or depressed respiration and rash.

Hydrocodone can be habit-forming, and can lead to physical and psychological addiction.

is a drug used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Hydromorphone is known by the trade names Dilaudid and Palladone. It belongs to a category of drugs known as opioid agonists. It is commonly given to patients who have recently undergone surgery or who have suffered serious injury, and it is given intravenously, intramuscularly, rectally, or orally. Hydromorphone is often sought after by opiate drug abusers as it is one of the most potent of all prescription narcotics.

Hydromorphone, a semi-synthetic ?-opioid agonist, is a hydrogenated ketone of morphine and shares the pharmacologic properties typical of opioid analgesics. Hydromorphone and related opioids produce their major effects on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. These include analgesia, drowsiness, mental clouding, changes in mood, euphoria or dysphoria, respiratory depression, cough suppression, decreased gastrointestinal motility, nausea, vomiting, increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure, increased biliary pressure, pinpoint constriction of the pupils, increased parasympathetic activity and transient hyperglycemia.

is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely marketed under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Motrin, Nuprin, and Nurofen. It is used for relief of symptoms of arthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, and fever; and as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component.

Ibuprofen is an NSAID which is believed to work through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX); thus inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. As with other NSAIDs, ibuprofen inhibits platelet aggregation, but is not used therapeutically for this action since it is a minor and reversible effect.

Ibuprofen appears to have the lowest incidence of gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of all the non-selective NSAIDs. However, this only holds true at lower doses (200 to 400 mg) and daily doses of up to 1,200 mg of ibuprofen.

is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and in the treatment of narcotic addiction.

Methadone has a slow metabolism and very high lipid solubility making it longer lasting than morphine-based drugs. Methadone has a typical half life of 24-48 hours.

Methadone has traditionally been provided to the addiction population in a highly regulated "Methadone Clinic"

In recent years, Methadone has gained popularity among physicians for the treatment of other medical problems such as chronic pain. The increased usage comes as doctors search for an opioid drug that can be dosed less frequently than short-acting drugs such as morphine or hydrocodone. Methadone, with its long half-life, oral bioavailability, and long duration of effect is a common second-choice drug for pain that doesn't respond to weaker agonists.

is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It has powerful anxiolytic, amnestic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant and sedative properties. Midazolam is frequently used (usually in combination with other agents, such as morphine) by anesthesiologists for sedating patients prior to surgery or other invasive medical procedures. The mild amnesia caused by this drug is a side effect commonly used for its effect as a 'pre-med' before surgery. Rapid infusion of midazolam may cause transient apnea, and occasionally, respiratory arrest.

The principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. Like other opiates, morphine acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain, and at synapses of the arcuate nucleus, in particular. Side effects include impairment of mental performance, euphoria, drowsiness, lethargy, and blurred vision. It also decreases hunger, inhibits the cough reflex, and produces constipation. Morphine is usually highly addictive when compared to other substances, and tolerance and physical and psychological dependence develop quickly. Patients on morphine often report insomnia and nightmares.

Morphine is an opioid agonist whose main effect is binding to the opioid-receptors in the central nervous system. This is thought to be the reason behind the analgesia, euphoria, physical dependence and respiratory depression. Morphine also binds with k-receptors, which are thought to mediate spinal analgesia, miosis and sedation.

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen (Tylenol 3's and 4's)
is a popular American brand of pain reliever and fever reducer, sold by Johnson & Johnson. It is extremely popular because it is available without prescription and it is effective with few side effects, but overdoses of Tylenol are serious and can be fatal. In heavy drinkers, regular use of acetaminophen increases liver damage from alcohol. Unlike NSAIDs, paracetamol is not particularly effective against pain from inflammatory disorders.

Tylenol remains a top seller, controlling about 35% of the pain killer market in North America.

- Tylenol NO. 3 with Codeine & Caffeine: Each round, hard, white, flat-faced tablet, bevelled-edged, engraved with "3" on one side and "McNEIL" on the other, contains acetaminophen 300 mg and caffeine 15 mg, in combination with codeine phosphate 30 mg. caffeine's vasoconstricting effects have been proven to be an effective migraine treatment.

- Tylenol NO. 4 with Codeine: Each round, hard, white, flat-faced, bevelled-edged tablet, engraved with "4" on one side and "McNEIL" on the other, contains 300 mg of acetaminophen and 60 mg of codeine phosphate.

A narcotic analgesic, is used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. It contains two drugs--acetaminophen and oxycodone. Acetaminophen is used to reduce both pain and fever. Oxycodone, a narcotic analgesic, is used for its calming effect and for pain.

Acetaminophen is a less potent pain reliever that increases the effects of oxycodone. Together, acetaminophen and oxycodone are used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain.

Percocet contains a narcotic and, even if taken only in prescribed amounts, can cause physical and psychological dependence when taken for a long time. Percocet is habit forming. Do not stop taking it suddenly.

Pethidine or meperidine
(also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; operidine; pethanol; piridosal; Algil; Alodan; Centralgin; Demerol; Dispadol; Dolantin; Dolestine; Dolosal; Dolsin; Mefedina) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. In the United States, it is more commonly known as meperidine or by its brand name Demerol.

Pethidine is used to deal with moderate to severe pain, and is delivered as hydrochloride tablets, as a syrup, or by intramuscular or intravenous injection. Because pethidine has the potential to be both physically and psychologically habituating, it is important that it be used in only the doses prescribed, and that withdrawal from the drug be supervised by a physician to ensure there are no adverse reactions.
Pethidine has effects similar to morphine, It's duration of clinical effect is 120-150 minutes.

Users of pethidine may experience serious adverse effects. These include asthma, swelling of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, swelling of the lips, tongue, or face, seizures, cold and clammy skin, or dizziness and possible unconsciousness. The presence of any of these side effects is an indicator to stop using pethidine immediately and seek immediate medical attention.

Less serious side effects include constipation, dry mouth, lightheadedness, itchiness, muscular twitches, and nausea.

A sterile aqueous solution of soluble salts of the volatile bases from Sarraceniaceae (Pitcher Plant). Benzyl Alcohol 0.75%. Medicinal use of this product has not been approved by the FDA.

Sarapin treatment can relieve the following painful syndromes :
Sciatic Pain
Intercostal Neuralgia

Salbutamol or albuterol
is a short-acting ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. The name Albuterol comes from Salbutamol aerosol.

Salbutamol sulfate is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. This is usually achieved through a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or nebuliser; but other delivery devices marketed for salbutamol sulfate include the Rotahaler, Easyhaler, Diskhaler, and Autohaler. Salbutamol can also be given orally (Volmax) or intravenously.

is an atypical opioid which is a centrally acting analgesic, used for treating moderate to severe pain. It is a synthetic agent, unrelated to other opioids, and appears to have actions on the GABAergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems.

Tramadol is available in both injectable (intravenous and/or intramuscular) and oral preparations.

The most commonly reported adverse drug reactions are nausea, vomiting and sweating. Drowsiness is reported, although it is less of an issue compared to other opioids. Respiratory depression, a common side effect of most opioids, is not clinically significant in normal doses.

Some controversy exists regarding the dependence liability of tramadol. The manufacturer Grunenthal has promoted it as an opioid with a low risk of dependence compared to traditional opioids. Despite these claims it is apparent, in community practice, that dependence to this agent does occur. This would be expected since analgesic and dependence effects mediated by the same ?-opioid receptor. However, this dependence liability is considered relatively low by health authorities.

Last edited by Rossoe on Fri Jun 04, 2021 11:39 am; edited 3 times in total
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kalie28 Reply with quote
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Joined: 25 Jul 2008
Posts: 3

PostPosted: Fri Jul 25, 2008 3:44 pm    Post subject:
You really know a lot about drugs, I guess theoretically there is no risk for you to get addicted to any of these. What worries me the most is that there are people vulnerable and uninformed about these drugs and they can easily get addicted without even knowing it, just like my mother did with her vicodin addiction.
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Hazz Reply with quote
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Joined: 12 May 2008
Posts: 210
Location: Florida

PostPosted: Thu Jul 31, 2008 12:51 pm    Post subject:
why do all the pain killers have caffeine in them? Just some pain killers have caffeine in them.
Caffeine (KAF-feen) belongs to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. It is used to help restore mental alertness when unusual tiredness or weakness or drowsiness occurs.
The short side is. It helps you not fall asleep with the other narcotic pain relievers.
If they keep you up at night. Just tell your Doctor the change your prescription. Wink
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garethreynolds Reply with quote
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Joined: 09 Mar 2009
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Location: stowmarket,uk

PostPosted: Sat Mar 28, 2009 5:57 pm    Post subject:
I usually take tramadol for pain in my left side where i had a bullectomy operation, about 4 years ago to reduce the ongoing pain, and now to reduce the pain in my right side where i had a small sp three weeks ago.

But because i have been taking them for a while now, they only take the edge of the pain, so my consultant at the hospital prescribed me co-codomol 30/500 for the pain, the only problem with these, is they make me tired so i can only take them before bed or when i get home from work, as i work in a hospital ( not a good place to be drowsy when dealing with patients).
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Hazz Reply with quote
Doctorized Blebber

Joined: 12 May 2008
Posts: 210
Location: Florida

PostPosted: Mon Mar 30, 2009 12:03 pm    Post subject:
Here in my home town in Florida. I have a very hard time finding a doctor that will help with just a small prescription for chest pain.
I take NSAID* but that is for pain 2 or 3 on the scale 1 lowest and 10 highest for pain. I have been having pain in the 6-8 from weather changes. I lost my part time job do to being pale as a stock person. My boss was like when i came back to work 2 days later said. I am a risk to there workmens comp so he let me go. Sad
I have for the most part did without, I just keep pain meds from the dentist or what not for the hard times.
Doctors here are in fear of the law for handing out narcotics drugs.
I now have Carper Tunnel Syndrome. Shocked This a new world of pain to.
That is way i am not around here as much. Embarassed
CTS is like $40,000.00 US to get done. I don't have that kind of money.
They wont it up front to no payments. Sad
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